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HIST 112: South Africa & the Anti-Apartheid Movement -- Professor Lewis Nang'ea: Library Session 3, October 20th 2022

Chicago Manual of Style

Notes-Bibliography vs. Author-Date

  • Notes-Bibliography style in Chicago is a style characterized by footnotes at the bottom of each page, and superscript numbers taking the place of in-text citation. The sources are reproduced in a bibliography at the end of the paper. Footnotes are intended to be read while the reader is going through the text, and the bibliography is used as a repository of potentially useful sources.
  • Author-Date style in Chicago is very similar to APA style. It uses in text citations at the end of sentences in parenthesis, which are intended to refer the reader to the source on the references page.

Exercise: Paraphrase the Notes-Bibliography box above

Write a sentence comparing the two styles, paraphrasing from the box above you.

Basic Citation Components

Citations of particular materials (i.e., books, journals, websites) are easily recognizable by the content that they require. When writing citations from scratch, be sure to include the following general components.


  • Title
  • Author(s)
  • Publisher
  • Publication Place
  • Year

Journal articles:

  • Title of article
  • Title of journal
  • Article author(s)
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • Year
  • Page numbers


  • Website author (a person or an organization)
  • Title of website
  • Web address
  • Date of last revision
  • Date that site was accessed


The Purdue Owl site has information on annotated bibliographies. The Citation Programs tab offers several different computer software programs to help you prepare your bibliography.

Paraphrasing vs. Patchwriting Example

Original passage:

“Where mainstream sports typically refrain from displaying unapologetically violent acts, professional wrestling dives in head first. A large portion of wrestling’s cultural appeal is generated by the psychological arousal/excitement provided by witnessing highly aggressive and violent forms of physical interaction in this sphere. Wrestling takes that which is pushed behind the scenes of social life and places it in the center ring” (Atkinson, 2002, p. 62-63).


Most sports do not encourage blatant acts of violence, while professional wrestling embraces the same behavior. Wrestling appeals to audiences because people enjoy watching aggressive and violent acts in the ring. What is normally not condoned in ordinary society is made acceptable in wrestling. (Atkinson, 2002, p. 62-63)


Mainstream sports refrain from showing unremorseful violent acts while professional wrestling unapologetically revels in the same type of violence. A large part of wrestling’s appeal is generated by the very aggressive and violent interaction in this sport. While such violence is usually behind the scenes of social life, it is the centre of wrestling’s existence. (Atkinson, 2002, p. 62-63)

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