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INTD 105: Freedom of Speech (Professor Auyer): Integrate Sources Into Your Writing (Citation)

Why style guides?

When you are doing research papers, often instructors will indicate that they want you to use a particular kind of style in citing references.  There are ones used for the social sciences, the humanities, and the sciences. 

The most popular are American Psychological Association (APA), Modern Language Association (MLA) and Chicago.  Turabian is a very useful style guide if your instructors do not indicate a particular type. 

In any case, you need to cite your sources in such a manner that other can go to the sources you used in your papers.  And it is very important to be consistent in your citation styles.

Basic Citation components

Citations of particular materials (i.e., books, journals, websites) are easily recognizable by the content that they require. When writing citations from scratch, be sure to include the following general components.


  • Title
  • Author(s)
  • Publisher
  • Publication Place
  • Year

 Journal articles:

  • Title of article
  • Title of journal
  • Article author(s)
  • Volume
  • Issue
  • Year
  • Page numbers


  • Website author (a person or an organization)
  • Title of website
  • Web address
  • Date of last revision
  • Date that site was accessed


General Sites

Practice Exercise

In-Text citations are an important part of integrating sources. Study the the pdf below to learn how to do in text citations. Then, apply what you have learned by completing the Practice Exercise.